This unit will require you to practice CRITICAL THINKING in order to make sense of the complex interdependence of issues leading to conflict and the complexity of finding plausible solutions. KEEP A DAILY WORKING LIST OF CONCEPTS AND TERMS IN YOUR PERSONAL FILES.

CONCEPT

DEFINITION

EXAMPLE

GEOPOLITICS
The study of geographic influences on power
relationships in international politics (boundaries,
sea routes, natural resources, strategically important
land areas).
Russian take-over of Crimea
HARD POWER
The use of aggressive military or economic strategies to influence a political body of weaker power
Military invasion as in NATO's invasion in Afghanistan to fight the Taliban, Canada joins USA to carry out airstrikes against IS.
Economic sanctions against Iran, sanctioned by the UN, to deter Iran from developing nuclear weapons.
SOFT POWER
The use of methods other than military might to resolve conflict such as the provision of economic reconstruction and development, diplomacy and foreign assistance.
Canada and US have several hundred soldiers in Iraq training the military
HEGEMONY
Expanding a nation's influence to power beyond its borders without military conquest
US, China in South Asia, language of English being the language of business, big powers of history; 'empire' stretching powers beyond its borders through foreign policy
PROJECT POWER
A country's ability to have bases outside of their country so their armies can be used in closer proximity to the targets
Russia's navy base in Crimea, Drones manned in the US targeting places elsewhere. US army may use bases in Turkey to store planes and munitions to carry out airstrikes over Iraq.
ASSYMETRICAL WARFARE
War between two groups whose military vary significantly or whose methods and tactics vary significantly; strategies need not necessarily be militarized
War between a well equipped, well organized group and an ill-equipped, under manned group such as NATO versus a 'guerilla' group or terrorist group.
CANADIAN DIPLOMACY


PEACE KEEPING

http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/
PEACE MAKING


PEACE BUILDING


RESPONSIBILITY TO PROTECT


GLOBAL ARMS TRADE


FAILED STATE


HEZBOLLAH


PROXY WAR
Country X uses an army and hard power from Country Y to prove its dominance over Country Z who is also supporting and using an army from Country Y to support a conflict in Country Y
US in Afghanistan supporting Afghan civilians fighting USSR in Afghanistan who is supporting the Taliban - 1979-1989 Cold War tactic between USA and USSR
GENOCIDE


CHILD SOLDIERS


POST TRAUMATIC
STRESS DISORDER


INTERNALLY DISPLACED
PERSON


REFUGEE


ECONOMIC DESTRUCTION
AND REHABILITATION


LONG TERM POLITICAL
INSTABILITY


CONFLICT AND RESOLUTION - NICHOLAS' PROF U GUELPH IAN SPEARS TED TALK
J.F.KENNEDY'S Peace Speech


Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (origin, terms, outcome)
History of Nuclear Testing 1943-1998 (image interactive)
Scroll below the map to look at the charts for additional information


Attack Of the Drones (video)
Drone strikes in Pakistan (infographic)

Finally a treaty to regulate small arms trade, but where is Canada? (article) What is Canada's stand on the small arms treaty presently?
IRAQ - 2015 EMMA SKY Sunday Edition podcast (Iraq's tragic present day)

CHILD SOLDIERS

Children and Armed Conflict - United Nations Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children (website)

United Nations Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child Resolution (Articles)

Signatures and Ratification of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children inArmed Conflict New York, 25 May 2000

What is an Optional Protocol?
"Very often, human rights treaties are followed by "Optional Protocols" which may either provide for procedures with regard to the treaty or address a substantive area related to the treaty. Optional Protocols to human rights treaties are treaties in their own right, and are open to signature, accession or ratification by countries who are party to the main treaty." (source)
Fight Like Soldiers Die Like Children (trailer)


Omar Khadr - trial imperils all child soldiers (article) Do you agree with the actions Canada and the US took towards Khadr? Where is Khadr now? Express your agreement supporting or opposing his treatment to date?
omar.jpg

Child pirates are everybody's problem (article)

What should we do when countries, namely the US, waive their obligation to withhold aid to countries who knowingly recruit child soldiers? (website)

SYRIA AND UKRAINE

Is the crisis in Ukraine a greater threat to Western security than the Syrian civil war? (The Current podcast)

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC (CAR)

"UN mission may come to late for many in Central African Republic: Analysis" Toronto Star April 11, 2014 article
"In Central African Republic, a lesson in hate" Saturday Star April 12, 2014 article


RWANDA – ‘Where is the world?’ 20th Anniversary - April 2014
Day 1
Define the term "genocide"
Collaborate with your table group to place the cards in chronological order.

Historic Timeline of Relevant Events

1300s - Tutsis migrate into what is now Rwanda, which was already inhabited by the Twa and Hutu peoples.

Late 1800s– 1946 - Tutsi King Kigeri Rwabugiri establishes a unified state with a centralised military structure; Rwanda becomes part of German East Africa; Belgian forces occupy Rwanda; Belgium granted League of Nations mandate to govern Ruanda-Urundi, which it ruled indirectly through Tutsi kings

1946 - Ruanda-Urundi becomes UN trust territory governed by Belgium.

Independence
1957 - Hutus issue manifesto calling for a change in Rwanda's power structure to give them a voice commensurate with their numbers; Hutu political parties formed.

1959 - Tutsi King Kigeri V, together with tens of thousands of Tutsis, forced into exile in Uganda following inter-ethnic violence.

1961 - Rwanda proclaimed a republic.

1962 - Rwanda becomes independent with a Hutu, Gregoire Kayibanda, as president; many Tutsis leave the country.

1963 – 1983 - Some 20,000 Tutsis killed following an incursion by Tutsi rebels based in Burundi; President Gregoire Kayibanda ousted in military coup led by Juvenal Habyarimana; New constitution ratified; Habyarimana elected president

1988 - Some 50,000 Hutu refugees flee to Rwanda from Burundi following ethnic violence there.

1990 - Forces of the rebel, mainly Tutsi, Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invade Rwanda from Uganda.

Genocide
1993 - President Habyarimana signs a power-sharing agreement with the Tutsis in the Tanzanian town of Arusha, ostensibly signalling the end of civil war; UN mission sent to monitor the peace agreement.

1994 April - Habyarimana and the Burundian president are killed after their plane is shot down over Kigali; RPF launches a major offensive; extremist Hutu militia and elements of the Rwandan military begin the systematic massacre of Tutsis. Within 100 days around 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus are killed; Hutu militias flee to Zaire (now DR Congo), taking with them around 2 million Hutu refugees.

1994-96 - Refugee camps in Zaire fall under the control of the Hutu militias responsible for the genocide in Rwanda: Extremist Hutu militias and Zairean government forces attack local Zairean Tutsis; Zaire attempts to force refugees back into Rwanda.

1995 - UN-appointed international tribunal begins charging and sentencing a number of people responsible for the Hutu-Tutsi atrocities

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14093238

Map of Rwanda
rwafrica.gifrwnewzz.gif

Video
"Shooting Dogs" (BBC production 90 min) - This film was made by the BBC after the genocide. As you view the film complete the worksheet.

Day 2
Complete viewing "Shooting Dogs" and complete the worksheet.
Complete the "Bystanders, Contributors, Perpetrators" The Global Citizenship Paradox Page 2 handout.

Day 3
"Shake Hands With The Devil" (White Pine Pictures 90 min) - This film documents General Romeo Dallaire's (RET) journey to Rwanda on the 10th anniversary of the Rwandan Genocide.

Day 4
Justine Stacey (Guest speaker) - Justine has visited Rwanda twice, once for her Bachelor's Degree and once for her Master's Degree. Justine is a founder and blogger for www.girlsglobe.org a website focusing on the opportunity for young women around the globe to share their voice through social media.

Day 5
"Shake Hands With The Devil) Discuss the "Bystanders ..." worksheet further. Respond to the questions on the film. You will answer 1 question collaboratively with peers who selected the same question as you.

Day 6
How Rwanda has moved forward through the Gaccaca Court system and social infrastructure.

DRC - The Global Citizenship Paradox
Day 6
Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo: an issue analysis

THE DEFECTOR
tvodocstudio (57 min)
The Defector: Experience The Journey an interactive video experience
The Defector Interactive - analysis of digital learning opportunity legitimate or not?

REFUGEE CAMPS
The Current podcast (25 minutes)

THE GLOBAL ARMS TRADE - WHO BENEFITS?
Aljazeera article and video (25 min)
Damned Nations